Native America Substance Abuse


Native America Substance Abuse – Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography

  Ask a Question


Native Americans Substance Abuse – Literature Review

There is a general consensus on the definition of substance abuse and substance abuse treatment. Although authors present different definitions, all the definitions have common operational terms. The operational terms in substance abuse include physical or psychological dependence, abuse of, and withdrawal from a substance.

On the other hand, the definition of substance abuse treatment includes operational terms like stopping compulsive drug seeking and use, relapse prevention, recovery and others. From these operational terms substance abuse can therefore be considered as a practice in which a person develops dependence on drug or alcohol while substance abuse treatment is the process of helping the person overcome this this dependence.  There is no conflict on the definition of these terms. Native America Substance Abuse.

However, there are differences in explain the reasons for substance abuse and the treatment approaches that should be used. There are different theories of addiction, which explains addiction from different causative factors which falls broadly into biological and environment factors. According to biological theories, brain studies shows that addiction has substantial heritability and it persist through generations (Henden, Melberg & Rogenber, 2013; Klingemann et al., 2010). This view supports the medical treatment approach to addiction because it posits addition as a chronic relapsing brain disease that should be treated medically (Ouzir & Errami). Native America Substance Abuse

However, this is opposed by some studies which show that addiction records the highest remission rate among psychiatric disorders, some people quite addition even without any professional help, and that quitting substance abuse is sometimes related to financial and family concerns (Klingemann et al., 2010).  This incongruity with reality brings to fore the choice theory of addition, which posits that addition is a rational choice (Heyman, 2013; Henden et al., 2013). This theory posits that addition is a voluntary behavior rather than a compulsive drug use because drugs or any other addicts hijacks the brain’s reward circuit and  modify behavior just like the normal behavior learning process (MacNicol, 2017). Native America Substance Abuse

However,  increased research in etiological theories of addiction have also given rise to the hybrid theory which posits that both biological and environmental factors contribute to addition (Ouzir & Errami, 2016; Henden et al., 2013) The two theoretical perspectives determine the choice of treatment method. While biological perspective calls for medical treatment, the choice theory calls for behavioral modification through techniques like cognitive behavior theory.  Research evidence shows that a combination of the two approaches produces maximum benefits to the addicts, which means the common therapeutic practice is to use both medical and behavioral approaches (Ouzir & Errami, 2016; Henden et al., 2013). Native America Substance Abuse

Considering that the current evidence does not prove with certainty the contribution of biological and environmental factors in the etiology of addiction, further research in biological and psychological sciences is required to address the etiology well and perhaps formulate a lasting treatment approach to addiction. Native America Substance Abuse

No more offers for this product!

Shipping Policy

Terms and conditions

Basic Engagements conditions

Company Obligations

  1. The company is obligated to complete any order that has been paid failure to which a full refund will be issued to the customer
  2. The company is obligated to inform the customer of need for extra instructions, files, and any other requirement for completion of the order
  3. The company is obligated to issue refunds as defined in our Refund policy
  4. The company is obligated to upload completed orders within specified deadline  failure to which refund will be issued as per our refund policy
  5. The company is obligated to write 100% Original Non-plagiarized papers failure to which a refund will be issued

Custom obligations

  1. An order is considered completed upon payment. Only paid orders will be assigned to our writers
  2. The custom should upload materials required to complete the work. If the custom requires sources that  have been used in the paper, that request should be placed together with order instructions

Refund Policy

Refund Policy

To ensure that our customers get quality work, we guarantee full refund for any work that does not meet client instructions or that is late. The following is our refund policy:

a) Quality:

We are strict on quality. While we assure clients of quality work, they must supply the needed resources like instructions, required files, required data etc to ensure high quality. Failure to meet expected quality is subject to refund. The following is the criteria used in assessing and refunding based on quality of the paper:

  1. Partial mismatch of instructions – 30% Refund
  2. Complete mismatch of instructions – 100% Refund
  3. Grammar Errors – 10% Refund and free editing and Proofreading

b) Lateness:

We guarantee our customers quality work submitted on time. Failure to submit our work on time will be subjected to the following refund:

  1. 1-3 hours late – 10% Refund of the Total
  2. 3-24 hours late – 30% Refund
  3. 48 Hours late – 50% Refund
  4. >48 Hours late – 100% Refund

This is subject to the following which will be considered in issuing the refund:

  • Clients pay on time
  • Client uploaded needed files on time
  • Client responds to writer’s message on time

c) Plagiarism

We have a strict plagiarism policy that guarantees our customers 100% Non-plagiarized orders. Failure to submit original papers is subject to refund as follows:

  1. 1-5% plagiarism – No refund if the plagiarism is attributed to sources. 10% Refund if the plagiarism is not attributed to sources
  2. >5% plagiarism – 100% refund

Cancellation / Return / Exchange Policy

A successful cancellation of an order can be made within 3 hours of placing the order, but only if the order has a deadline of more than 12 hours. An order with a deadline less than 12 hours should be cancelled immediately, not more than 30 minutes after the customer places the order. 

General Inquiries

There are no inquiries yet.