Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule

Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule

Introduction and background

Egypt has experienced upheavals since the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak in a revolution which started on 25th January, 2011.Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule President Mubarak had taken power following the assassination of President Sadat in 1981, whereby he became the forth president and have been the longest serving in the history of Egypt with a reign of 30 years[1]. The revolution which sought to overthrow the reign of Mubarak from power started as a riots, occupational plaza, and non-violent civil resistance, acts of civil disobedience and labor strikes which involved millions of Egyptians[2].  The revolution comprised millions of Egyptians from different social cultural, economic and religious backgrounds although Islamic religion dominated in the violent overthrow of Mubarak[3]. Currents of revolution were marked by strong important feminists, nationalists, anti-capitalists, and liberalists who all came from different backgrounds but with Islamic culture. Violence had erupted in the capital City Cairo between the protesters and the security forces which resulted in death of more than 500 hundred people with scores of more than 10,000 people sustaining serious injuries and hospitalized. The grievances of protesters focused on corruption unemployment, lack of freedom of speech and free elections, inflation of living standards including food, Police brutality, state emergency laws, and low wages among the civil servants. Adding t o the pressure of protesters the Hosni Mubarak government was hit by reactions and strikes of the civil servants through labor unions hence paralyzing all the government operations. The protesters were demanding the end of regime of Mubarak, demolition of emergency laws, freedom and justices as well as transparency in government operations to minimize corruptions with a responsive non military government.

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Vice president Suleiman had announced the stepping down of Mubarak, dissolving of the parliament members, and suspension of constitution as power was handed over to Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (S.C.A.F). Prime Minister Ahmed Shakif was reinstated as in charge of the government until a new leader would be elected over. As Mubarak had been convicted of killing peaceful protesters he was sentenced a life imprisonment as the Muslims brotherhood, protested that SCAF have taken presidential powers and planning a coup[4].Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule The demonstrations followed the State Election Commission annunciation of Mohamed Morsi as the new president on 24th June elections and were inaugurated to power five days later. President Morsi reign have had challenges as most of Egyptians were not contented with the new government that had its leader from an outlawed movement of Muslim Brotherhood.

This made President Morsi to be deposed through a coup which was organized and led by General El-sisi who was the Minister of Defense on 3rd July 2013[5]. There have been continued massive demonstrations against military power which is termed as oppressive to the citizens yet they have been using live ammunitions to suppress the demonstrations.  Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt ruleThere have been a number of issues following the overthrow of President Morsi especially form foreign arena whereby he have been receiving low support, as much of  foreign aid came to support the military. If only Morsi would have the backup of the foreign nations he would have stayed in power for longer time, although a challenge of his support for Muslim brotherhood had contributed to his overthrow. If Morsi had Support from foreign governments he would overcome his issues or stall his fall.

The fact that the Minister for Defense General El-Sisi had a continued support from the foreign nations had ensured the success of coup against president Morsi[6]. Furthermore the Muslim Brotherhood due, to its dark sided history have not been internationally recognized as legal and Morsi, being a member and their leader, had little support for international level[7]. Most of the nations have been advocating for Morsi removal from power due to attachments with an illegal group, Muslim Brotherhood hence much of the support went to the military instead of the president which also facilitated greatly in this withdrawal from power.

Contributions of foreign aid in the overthrow of President Morsi

Muslim Brotherhood which is also known as Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimeen in Arab has been the oldest and largest organization of Islam which has emerged from Sunni Islamic group in almost all over the Arabs world. The movement was founded by Hassan al-Banna in 1928, which had rejected the western ideas of democratic governance arguing that it contradicted the ideas of universal Islamic rule. Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule The initial goals and missions of the movement were to Islamize the society by promotion of Islamic laws and policies, norms and morals with social welfare and political activism[8]. The Brotherhood was initially a religious movement with and acted a watchdog of the people towards the government. However, the movement was banned and declared illegal with members being procesecuted since its early attempts and aims to overthrow the government since early 1970.

However, in order to win the favors of the public and the government, Muslim Brotherhood had renounced violence and members had received much support due to provision of social amenities which were need much such as hospitals, schools and pharmacies. However the movement had won in the parliamentary seats and had for the first time represented in the central government in the year 2012. Following the lections of President Morsi who was the Brotherhood leader, the governance had been marked with corruption, underdevelopment and increased unemployment. This had triggered the Egyptians through the Minister of Defense to revolt against Morsi and had been withdrawn from power in 2013.

The fall of president Morsi have been attributed greatly to his political support and attachment with Muslim Brotherhood, which is yet to receive recognition at international level[9]. The Government of United States have been accused of funding the military  in order to have enough power to overthrow Morsi through nongovernmental organizations’ which operates within Egypt but have support from United States. Much of the funds donated by the foreign states included $1.3billion aid to purchase of weapons and support of anti-Morsi supporters. Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule The Muslim Brotherhood and the supports of President Morsi have been fighting endlessly with anti-government protesters who claim that the nation cannot be ruled by leaders who have attachments with an illegal political group and have not been registered officially.

Muslim Brotherhood (MB) has been claiming that they deserve to rule the nation in order to restore justice, transparency and spearhead development as they fight the rate of unemployment.   However, following the recent deliveries of twenty F-16 fighter jets are based on long term commitments and the ongoing contracts yet they have a little to imply in the most recent developments in Egypt.  Such fighter jets could only be used in strengthening the incoming government under which EU would have influence in. The funding of the military and development aid in Egypt have been linked with support of the Sisi on his campaigns for presidency and preparations against possible coup in case of a revolution attempts[10]. Such funding have been a clear indicator of the Wets supporting the overthrow of reign of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt through their leader former President Morsi.

Furthermore,  following the recent remarks of the presidential aspirants including Former Minister of Defense General El-Sisi, that if elected he would ensure that Egypt would be freed form the actions and policies of Muslim Brotherhood, are clear indicators of how the union have been threats’ to democracy in Egypt. With the decisions made to go ahead with $1.3billion aid could however has a function to mitigate strong Anti American sentiment which is prevalent in Egypt, following the signing of petition for impeachment of Morsi form power by more than 20 million Egyptians[11].Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule The governing of Morsi, which was marked with wide spread corruption among the government officials, had received much criticism from the public and foreign nations and this had also contributed to revolt against Morsi.

During the reign, President Morsi would have detached from the Muslim Brotherhood in order to receive support from the western governments. This could have helped to ease the pain the Egyptians were feeling due to increased taxation as the government was in the process of recovery from the wastage of funds during anti-Mubarak upraising. Much of the funds had been channeled in stabilizing the nation again and this had resulted in lowered funds in government treasury. However, Morsi attempts to implement the polices of Muslim Brotherhood in the nation had resulted in a lot of reactions from many Foreign nations, which saw this as inhuman and unethical due to the  severe consequences of such policies.

The European Union had offered € 4.2 billion for development purposes and this would have lowered the rate of unemployment in Egypt. However President Morsi had later announced his autocratic grab of Egypt constitutional powers which would implicate that he was the sole authority and any decision concerning the grants would come from him. Morsi, wanted to ensure that the Muslim Brotherhood policy against women was implement, which advocated that no woman will be elected in any political position[12]. This had followed complains of violation of women’s rights from the European Union which had decided to halt aid and grants to Egypt.

However the Muslim Brotherhood started pointing fingers to the EU for the rising Islam phobia in Europe[13]. However, if Morsi had heeded to the advice given by the European Union he could have secured a continued support which would have enabled him to remain in power longer. The European Union has been in support of Anti- Morsi uprising together with European government while the Morsi government had tried to use disproportionate methods to disperse anti government protesters. Such clashes against the Morsi government had resulted in death of more than 800 protesters while more than five thousand had sustained serious injuries and others hospitalized.

Following the autocratic declaration of president Morsi, most of the European nations had decide to halt the supply of small and light arms for the fear that they could have internal effects when against the protesters[14]. Muslim brotherhood failing of Egypt rule This had followed the reacting from criticism against the government for using live ammunitions against the protesters whereby police and civilian lives have been lost. Much of the support was given to the military through the Ministry Of Defense which only had the power to remove Morsi from power by that time.

However, the European Union could not halt off completely relation with Egyptian government since they depended much on the Suez Canal fro Trade with Africa nations and the Far East nations. Egypt on the other hand could not solely depend on European government for supply of light arms since there are still other sources and also from the porous border with Libya. However, discontinued support from the European Union towards the Egyptian government could not be pushed for extreme ends since they also needed the government in fighting off Islamic militants in the war torn Middle East.

The American government and E.U had embraced and supported the removal of Morsi and replacement by General Al-sisi since his government had shown little concern for the lawlessness that have flourished in Sinai and have resulted in massive killings. Egypt have  been taken as the nation that could restore peace in Sinai where the militants have caused interruptions of gas supply to Israel and Jordan as they have been bombing the gas pipeline for the last two years[15]. Furthermore, the instability in Sinai has ensured passage of weapons to militants in Hamas and Syria from Libya and there have been great concerns in the rising usage of shoulder fired missiles which have been used to shoot down planes.

It’s only through Egyptian government intervention that would ensure restoration of peace in Sinai where militants have been attacking and killing army personnel’s and police with the most notable attack happening in august where 24 police officers perished in an ambush by militants[16]. However, the European Union have been making restrictions to Egyptian government but shows support and hopes  that the Egyptian forces  have enough weapons to restore order in Sinai. Hence due to the reliance on the Suez canal for trade and the quest to restore peace in the Middle east  nations, European Union have to show support for the military rather than the government during the reign of President Morsi.

Muslim brotherhood has not been embraced worldwide due to connections with militant’s groups all over the Arabs world. This had made the foreign nations to show concern and support to the military in order to suppress the group within Egypt and all its operations. Most of the M.B members have been arrested and detained including Morsi himself among other seven influential members of the group[17].  Following the current constitution in Egypt the detained members and many more with political aspirations will not be able to contest for political positions due to restrictions. This actions of restricting such members from  vying in the central government positions  aims at halting the operations and existence of Muslim Brotherhood as well as any other Islamic movement in the near future. Presidential Candidate General Al-sisi promises his supporters and all anti Islamic movement supports that if elected would ensure elimination of opponents from such movements from plying meaningful role in the country’s politics[18].

            Opponents of Morsi have been receiving grants and aids from foreign nations and such funds have been used in the organizing of protests against Morsi government especially the Salvation Front.  One of the renown beneficially of the foreign aid is an Egyptian woman, Esraa Abdel-Fatah who rose in the opposition against the government after the promulgation of the new constitution in December 2012[19].  She had been organizing sieges and raids to mosques to overthrow and killing of Muslim preachers who supported the new constitution even before it went to referendum.  Consequently , during the besieging of the mosques and Islamic schools several people have lost their lives through deadly clashes which live bullets and lights bombs have been used.

Fatah have received several awards from the National Endowment for Democracy and other United States Democratic nongovernmental democratic groups. She has a nongovernmental organization based in Cairo which she had used to organize her operations against the Morsi government. The support of the foreign nations to the operations of Fatah in protesting against the constitution and the government are clear indicators of the foreign nation’s discontentment with the Morsi government and the constitution[20]. Funding of the protests against the constitution meant that the laws which were drawn were not serving the interests of Egyptians thence there was need to revise such laws and the only way could have been withdrawal of the supreme leader who was Morsi.  

 

Bibliography

Achar, Gilbert. People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising. California: University of California Press, 2013

Clark, Connor. Responding to Challenges of Instability and the Reforms in Egypt. Issue Brief for Security Council.2014

Haber, Joshua & Ighani, Helia. Delicate Balancing Act: Egyptian Foreign Policy after the Revolution. Institute for Middle East studies.2013

Korteweg, Rem. Europe’s struggle for influence in Egypt. Centre for European Reform. Last modified 23rd, August 2013. http://www.cer.org.uk/insights/europes-struggle-influence-egypt

Lang, Hardin,. Awad, Mokhtar, & Katulis, Brian. Fragmenting Under Pressure: Egypt Islamist Since Morsi Outster. Center for American Progress. 2014.

Lehmann, Christof. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS. Nsnbc international . 2013. http://nsnbc.me/2013/07/12/scramble-for-foreign-political-influence-over-egypt-between-gulf-i/

Mekay, Emad. Exclusive: US bankrolled anti-Morsi activists. Aljazeera. Last modified 10th July, 2013. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/07/2013710113522489801.html

Pradhan, Prasanta. Post-Morsi Egypt: Saudi Maneuvering and Iranian Dilemma. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 2013. http://idsa.in/issuebrief/Post-MorsiEgypt_pkpradhan_270913

Shay, Shaul. Egypt and the Threat of Islamic Terror. The Begin Sadat center for strategic Studies. 2014.

Stakelbeck, Erick. The Brotherhood: America’s Next Great Enemy. Washington D.C: Regnery Publishing,2013

[1] Clark, Connor. Responding to Challenges of Instability and the Reforms in Egypt. Issue Brief for Security Council, 2014

[2] Christof, Lehmann. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS. N.s.n.b.c international . 2013

[3] Erick, Stakelbeck. The Brotherhood: America’s Next Great Enemy. (Washington D.C: Regnery Publishing, 2013), 23

 

[4] Pradhan, Prasanta. Post-Morsi Egypt: Saudi Maneuvering and Iranian Dilemma. Institute for Defense Studies and Analyses. 2013. http://idsa.in/issuebrief/Post-MorsiEgypt_pkpradhan_270913

[5] Hardin, Lang,. Mokhtar, Awad, , & Brian, Katulis,. Fragmenting Under Pressure: Egypt Islamist Since Morsi Outster. Center for American Progress. 2014.

 

[6] Gilbert, Achar. People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising. (California: University of California Press, 2013), 59

[7] Lehmann, Christof. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS. Nsnbc international . 2013. http://nsnbc.me/2013/07/12/scramble-for-foreign-political-influence-over-egypt-between-gulf-i/

[8] Pradhan, Prasanta. Post-Morsi Egypt: Saudi Maneuvering and Iranian Dilemma. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. 2013. http://idsa.in/issuebrief/Post-MorsiEgypt_pkpradhan_270913

[9] Haber, Joshua & Ighani, Helia. Delicate Balancing Act: Egyptian Foreign Policy after the Revolution.  Institute for Middle East studies, 2013

 

[10] Christof, Lehmann. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS.  Nsnbc international . 2013

[11] Hardin, Lang,. Mokhtar,Awad, & Brian, Katulis. Fragmenting Under Pressure: Egypt Islamist Since Morsi Outster. Center for American Progress. 2014

 

[12] Connor, Clark. Responding to Challenges of Instability and the Reforms in Egypt. Issue Brief for Security Council. 2014

[13] Erick, Stakelbeck. The Brotherhood: America’s Next Great Enemy. (Washington D.C: Regnery Publishing, 2013),40

 

[14] Christof Lehmann,. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS.  N.s.n.b.c international . 2013

[16] Hardin, Lang ,. Mokhtar,Awad, , & Brian, Katulis,. Fragmenting Under Pressure: Egypt Islamist Since Morsi Outster. Center for American Progress. 2014

[17] Lehmann, Christof. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS. Nsnbc international . 2013. http://nsnbc.me/2013/07/12/scramble-for-foreign-political-influence-over-egypt-between-gulf-i/

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[18] Clark, Connor. Responding to Challenges of Instability and the Reforms in Egypt. Issue Brief for Security Council.2014

[19] Connor ,Clark. Responding to Challenges of Instability and the Reforms in Egypt. Issue Brief for Security Council.2014

[20] Lehmann, Christof. Scramble for Foreign Political Influence over Egypt, between gulf-Iran-USA/EU, IMF and BRICS.  n.s.n.b.c international . 2013